(PDF) Assessment of the influence of "MTV Base" programmes on the dressing patterns of Delta State University students 1

(PDF) Assessment of the influence of “MTV Base” programmes on the dressing patterns of Delta State University students

(PDF) Assessment of the influence of "MTV Base" programmes on the dressing patterns of Delta State University students 2

Abstract

This study set out to evaluate the influence of MTV Base programmes on the dressing patterns of Delta State University students. Survey research method was adopted to investigate how MTV Base, a popular music television channel, has influenced the dressing patterns of the undergraduates, considering the channel’s constant portrayal of western culture in its music programmes, especially the dressing styles of foreign pop artists. The research objectives include; to find out whether the students`students`dressing patterns are influenced by their viewership of MTV Base programmes; to determine the cultural implications of MTV Base programmes on the dressing patterns of the students, and to determine whether there is a significant relationship between the students’ viewership of MTV Base programmes and the erosion of African culture. Anchored on Social Learning theory, the research revealed that the dressing patterns of undergraduates are negatively influenced as a result of constant viewership of MTV Base programmes, which subsequently results to cultural imperialism and massive erosion of African culture through the help of globalization. The study recommended, among others, that more should be done by the appropriate authorities to get university students in Nigeria to prefer Nigerian culture to others through the way they dress, talk and dance rather than cultivating and adopting alien cultures that constantly put them under criticism.

Advertisement

Content uploaded by Obi Ijeoma

Author content

All content in this area was uploaded by Obi Ijeoma on Aug 19, 2019

Content may be subject to copyright.

Download full-text PDF

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

Assessment of the influence of “MTV Base” programmes on the dressing patterns of Delta

State University students.

By

GUANAH, Seigha Jammy

Research Fellow

Department of Theatre Arts and Mass Communication

University of Benin

Benin City,

Nigeria.

E-mail:jammyguanah@yahoo.com

Tel: 08032133664,

AGBONGIATOR, Kingsley Osazuwa

Independent Christian Film Producer

Based in Warri, Delta State

E-mail:kingsak47@yahoo.com

Tel: 07035836660

and

OBI, Ijeoma

Doctoral Candidate

Department of Mass Communication

Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University

Igbariam Campus

E-mail: obiijeoma14@yahoo.com

Tel: 08037099443

Abstract

This study set out to evaluate the influence of MTV Base programmes on the dressing patterns of Delta State

University students. Survey research method was adopted to investigate how MTV Base, a popular music television

channel, has influenced the dressing patterns of the undergraduates, considering the channel’s constant portrayal of

western culture in its music programmes, especially the dressing styles of foreign pop artists. The research objectives

include; to find out whether the students` dressing patterns are influenced by their viewership of MTV Base

programmes; to determine the cultural implications of MTV Base programmes on the dressing patterns of the

students, and to determine whether there is a significant relationship between the students’ viewership of MTV Base

programmes and the erosion of African culture. Anchored on Social Learning theory, the research revealed that the

dressing patterns of undergraduates are negatively influenced as a result of constant viewership of MTV Base

programmes, which subsequently results to cultural imperialism and massive erosion of African culture through the

help of globalization. The study recommended, among others, that more should be done by the appropriate

authorities to get university students in Nigeria to prefer Nigerian culture to others through the way they dress, talk

and dance rather than cultivating and adopting alien cultures that constantly put them under criticism.

Keywords: African culture, Assessment, Dressing patterns, Influence, Popular Culture.

Introduction

The media are powerful presence in people’s lives. Within the field of communication, media is the term

used to refer to the particular medium used to deliver a message to a large, anonymous, and diverse audience (Pearce,

26

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

2009a). Media studies involve research on media effects, which refer to the influence that the media has on

audiences, and media representations, which are portrayals of various cultural groups. At the core of social

construction is the idea that there is no such thing as objective reality (Pearce, 1995). Instead, scholars who advocate

for this foundation stress that all knowledge is historically and culturally specific (Allen, 2005). Media, as a powerful

social system, play an important role in creating a person’s sense of reality (Gergen, 1999). Even those persons who

closely monitor their media consumption are not immune to media effects.

All types of media function as a cultural socialization agent. However, of all the different types of media,

scholars have spent the most time researching the impact that television has had on personal, cultural, and societal

perceptions (Orbe, 2010). This is largely due to the rapid growth of the television industry and its pervasiveness in

everyday life. As a socialization agent, the mass mediated images that appear on television, via the news, soap

operas, situation comedies, dramas, talk shows, sporting events, and so forth, can have a tremendous influence on

how people view themselves and others (Orbe, 2010). Because of this, the governments in some countries ban certain

types of programming, or only allow television shows that support specific agendas. As such, programs that are

produced and aired are oftentimes subject to political, religious, cultural, and social agendas in countries throughout

the world (Orbe, 2010).

For many traditionally aged university students, the world has never been without an array of reality

television programs which has a history that spans 60-plus years. However, in recent years, reality television has

become the most popular form of entertainment (Schroeder, 2006). Given its mass appeal in Nigeria and abroad

(Hill, 2005), it has moved from the margins of television culture to its core in a dominating fashion. From a

television executive perspective, reality television represents an attractive form of programming. It has low

production costs. It can easily be marketed for foreign distribution. It also can be produced without dependence on

unionized actors and writers (Murray and Ouellette, 2004). These factors, as well as huge popularity among diverse

audiences, have propelled reality television from “another fad that overstayed its welcome” (Smith and Wood, 2003,

p. 3) to a staple in contemporary television culture.

Okere and Uwon (2012) suggest that the youth today look up to celebrities for their everyday fashion tips,

movies, albums and their general way of life. The youthful stage is a very confusing period filled with changes and

challenges, and is a period where an individual feels the need to “belong” and to be “accepted”. When this need is

created, the youth look for ways to fill the gap and most often turn to the media to perform this role. The magazines

often are the most accessible.

Hood (n.d.) suggests that “celebrities are most like salespersons. Adding further that,

though they may not explicitly try to persuade their audiences, they are

subconsciously altering the thoughts of their publics; this can be seen

through celebrity endorsements, press interviews, apparel worn during

public events, items favoured by celebrities, celebrity-branded products

and celebrities’ overall brand image all of which create epidemics of

societal acceptance among various social groups.

These images of celebrities often provide the basis from which youths benchmark their thoughts, opinions

and associations. The youth perceive such images as the social norm and, thus, as a means to attain the social

acceptance that is so vital to their personal maturation. Youths are affected by the messages and images the media

feed them with. Some of these images give them ideas of how to look and act to be accepted in today’s community

(Okere and Uwom 2012). Taylor and Stern (1997); Weiss (2004) in Cyril de Run, Butt, and Yen Nee (2010) are of the

opinion that teenagers and young adults have the tendency to be easily influenced by celebrities as compared to

mature population because teenagers tend to copy the characteristics of celebrities, including their dressing patterns.

Weiss (2004) adds that “this allows them to compensate their low self-esteem” (Cyril de Run, Butt, & Yen Nee,

2010). Everelles and Leavitt (1992) in Cyril de Run et al. (2010) further add that “there are some who would go over

the limits by having plastic surgery just to look like their favorite celebrities.”

According to Jones (2005, p. 83), Music Television (MTV) continues to be a powerful cultural force. First

introduced in the United Syates in 1981, MTV had an immediate impact on popular music, visual style, and culture.

MTV was first to explore and introduce what are now staples of popular culture: It brought “mega-events” such as

LiveAid, the merging of popular music and corporate sponsorship, “unplugged” acoustic performances, and reality

27

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

programming in the form of The Real World (Jones, 2005). MTV quickly became an iconic presence in popular

culture, not only inspiring visual media culture (Miami Vice, for example) but also inspiring songs about it (Dire

Straits’ Money for Nothing and Beck’s MTV Makes Me Wanna Smoke Crack are two very different examples) (Jones

2005). It is against this backdrop that this study aimed at ascertaining the influence of MTV BASE on the dressing

patterns of undergraduates with students of Delta State University as study focus.

Statement of the Research Problem

In this 21st century, most MTV BASE programmes are characterized by the modernisation of fashion

sense which has its foundation in western cultures. Without paying attention to cultural diversities, MTV BASE

produces programmes that are stuffed with Western ideas of fashion, singing, dancing etc. The influence of MTV

BASE programmes on teenagers may not be immediate or out rightly effective due to some other variables like

family, social group, peer group, etc.

Nevertheless, the influence might be insidious and could lead the teenagers to harbour false ideas and

exhibit negative social behaviour. The more they expose themselves to this entertainment television with reference to

the amount of time some of them put into watching entertainment programmes, the greater the chance for them to

develop a world view and a perception of reality similar to what they watch over time on entertainment TV. This

study therefore is designed to examine the influence of these popular cultures portrayed by MTV BASE on the

dressing patterns of students of Delta State University. Abraka.

Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of popular culture on the dressing pattern

of the viewers of MTV BASE programmes with particular reference to Delta State University students while the

specific objectives of the study are:

i. To find out whether the respondents frequently watch MTV BASE programmes.

ii. To find out whether the students` dressing patterns are influenced by their viewership of MTV Base programmes.

iii. To determine the cultural implication of MTV BASE programmes on the dressing patterns of the respondents.

iv. To determine whether there is a significant relationship between the respondents’ viewership of MTV BASE

programmes and the erosion of African culture.

Research Questions

Based on the above objectives, the researchers pose the following questions to guide the investigation:

i. Do the respondents frequently watch MTV BASE progrommes?

ii. Does viewership of MTV Base programmes influence students` dressing patterns?

iii. What cultural implications do MTV BASE programmes have on the dressing patterns of the respondents?

iv. Is there any significant relationship between the respondents’ viewership of MTV BASE programmes and the

erosion of African culture?

Theoretical Framework

This study is based on the Social Learning Theory. Social Learning Theory was propounded by Albert

Bandura who was a psychologist at Stanford University. The theory suggests that much learning takes place through

observing the behaviour of others (Anaeto, et al, 2008). Bandura (1986) argues that people learn behaviours,

emotional reactions, and attitudes from role models whom they wish to emulate. In his earliest studies to support this

theory, fondly called the “Bobo Doll Studies”, pre-school children watched a film in which an adult pummeled,

kicked, threw, and hammered a 3.5 feet tall, inflatable Bobo the clown doll. One-third of the children watched the

film that ended with the adult aggressor being rewarded; one-third watched a film that ended with the adult aggressor

being punished and one-third saw a no-consequence version of the film. All the children were then turned loose in a

playroom filled with attractive toys, including a Bobo doll. Children who saw rewarded or inconsequential

aggression were more likely to beat up the Bobo doll than were children who saw punished aggression. The results

therefore, showed that whether or not the children acted aggressively depended on their observations of another

person’s experiences with reward and punishment, and not on their own personal experiences (American

Psychological Association, n.d.).

28

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

Bandura as cited in Wirtz (2008) explains that “children and adults acquire attitudes, emotional responses,

and new styles of conduct through filmed and televised modeling.” Therefore, he cautioned that TV viewing might

create a violent reality, which has to be feared for its capacity to influence the way we deal with people every day.

His theory can be summarized as follows:

i. He says that we learn by observing others.

ii. He focuses on the power of examples and the importance of role models.

iii. He stresses the importance of vicarious behaviour as a means of modifing behaviour (Wirtz, 2008).

According to Lefkowitz, Eron, Walder and Huesmann (1977) as cited in Wirtz (2008), three stages can be

identified in the link between passive violence (just watching) and active violence (actually carrying it out).

i. Attention: the first step is to grab a social learner’s attention and television achieves this through advertisements

and programmes- the more explicit and violent, the better, because it does achieve its goal.

ii. Retention: people learn things by vicariously experiencing them. A TV viewer can watch the most graphic, explicit

and or violent acts and experience the thrills, the fear, the strength in the safety of his own room, in his house, before

his TV screen. Therefore, a TV viewer interprets these TV experiences according to his cognitive and emotional

levels and then stores them in his memory. These memories may remain unused and untapped for years; they may

contribute towards shaping future active or passive experiences.

iii. Motivation: it was suggested that when a person vicariously learns something that deeply affects him or her, S/he

will be tempted to try it out for him or herself and see what happens. The question is usually; would be whether

he/she experience the same results as the on-screen character? In other words, the person tries out the experience on

the basis of what he perceives the outcome to be, rather than what may be the actual outcome.

The social learning theory has a general application to socializing effects of media and the adoption of

various models of action as it applies to many everyday matters such as clothing, appearance, style, eating and

drinking, modes of interaction and personal consumption. Television is rarely the only source of social learning and

its influence depends on other sources such as parents, friends, teachers, etc (McQuail, 2005).

From the discussion, it can be reliably argued that this theory appropriately addresses how entertainment

TV helps in shaping the social behaviour of teenagers (students). This is because as they are exposed to the

entertainment programmes, they engage in a form of social learning process through some of the attributes as

portrayed on TV. Clark (1994) is of the view that it is not the medium that influences learning; instead there are

certain attributes of TV that can be modeled by learners and can shape the development of unique “cognitive

processes.” It is important to note that several researchers and organizations apply social learning in their educational

entertainment programmes.

From the discussion, it can be reliably argued that this theory appropriately addresses how entertainment

TV helps in shaping the social behaviour of teenagers. This is because, as they are exposed to the entertainment

programmes, they engage in a form of social learning process through some of the attributes as portrayed on TV, like

dressing patterns.

Literature Review

The Concept of Culture

Culture is very much an elusive term to define, perhaps because of its wider scope and broad nature.

However, what comes to the mind while thinking of culture is values and norms people have which make them live

in a particular way. It is a way of living in a particular community. According to Uwaezuoke (2010) culture is the

sum total of all things that refer to religion, roots of people, symbols, languages, songs, stories, celebrations, clothing

and dressing, and all expressions of our way of life. It encompasses food productions, technology, architecture,

kinship, the interpersonal relationships, political and economic systems and all the social relationships these entail.

One truth about culture is that it is learned. Such learning does not take place through natural inheritance

(Uwaezuoke, 2010). It is not genetically transmitted. Rather, it takes place by a process of absorption from the social

environment or through deliberate instruction, or through the process of socialization. If culture is learned, it may

follow to say that, it can equally be unlearned (Uwaezuoke, 2010). If it follows, then, Africa has a lot to unlearn

(those western values that are alien and destructive to the African culture) from the contact with the West. However,

this does not suggest that Africa has nothing good to learn from the West.

29

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

Hence Nwabueze (2010, p. 8) sees culture as everything a society thinks, believes, does, and possess as

members of that society, “it is our social inheritance that give structure to our lives, it is normatively learned and

transmitted.” The normative aspect of culture involves goals we should pursue and how we should pursue them, the

values we should espouse, systems of morality, including what is sinful, shameful and embarrassing. Culture is

learned when we are socialised into values, beliefs and rules of the society. Culture has to do with the totality of man

and his belief system, culture never perishes.

The culture of African continent is rapidly undergoing a rudimentary phase of Cultural Revolution.

Indeed, this revolution is both positive and negative. Positive because some of the hitherto sacrosanct cultural

practices that depict nothing but irrational worldviews and belief systems, outdated customs and practices that

constitute a bane to the development of the populace in the region and are fast becoming unattractive and actually

phasing out. Thanks to the contact with the West in historical moments of colonialism and current globalisation. It

has indeed brought about cultural renaissance. Negative on the other hand, because our age long cherished traditions

and valuable customs are rapidly going into extinction.

As Uwaezuoke (2010, p.5) puts it, “If in this so-called global integration (globalization) we lose what

defines us, then we are lost as a people and as a continent. It is already happening and has generated with it a crisis of

identity amongst Africans and Nigerians in general”.

In the process of international interactions, there is an interaction of cultures and thus, a borrowing and

diffusion of cultures amongst nations. This is in itself not unusual. But unusual and unfortunate is the domination of

one culture over the other. This is an evil, an evil of forced acculturation (Ekwuru, 1999). This is true of globalisation

which has generated a lot of controversy with regards to the rise of a global culture in which Western life is being

adopted as the normal way of life (Uwaezuoke, 2010).

However, in the assessment of the impact of globalisation on individuals, nations and the global world,

many scholars, opinion leaders and political analysts etc. have expressed divergent and dissenting views. While they

all agree that globalisation has a political, economic, cultural and even religious impact on individuals, nations and

the world at large, they however, disagree on the nature and extent of this impact. While some argue that it is all

positive, some believe that it has nothing but negative impacts. Yet others see it as being both positive and negative

(Kwame, 2007). Zion and Kozloski (2005) identified the news media and pop culture as major factors that influences

cultural identity. They believe that what we see on television, or read in magazines, influences our beliefs about

ourselves and others, claiming that, in subtle and explicit ways, the media influences our values. Zion and Kozloski

(2005) are of the opinion that pop culture influences our images of ourselves, including what is appropriate behavior,

dress, and criteria for success.

Zion and Kozloski (2005) argue that our views of ourselves in relation to our personal interests and

memberships in social groups can often form the core of our individual cultural identity. Chosen affiliations or

hobbies such as athlete, outdoorsman, cowboy, biker, artist, or environmentalist can influence our cultural identity

development. We develop our individual and cultural identity as we define ourselves in relation to our environments,

in our relationships with others, and in our participation in groups. We explore alternatives, make choices, and decide

what we believe in, based on the experiences we have and our interactions with others. Thus, our identities are often

a combination of the beliefs, values, and experiences we have been exposed to and shared with others.

Popular Culture

The term ‘ ’ holds different meanings depending on who is defining it and the context of use. It is

generally recognized as the vernacular or people’s culture that predominates in a society at a point in time. As

Brummett (1991) explains, pop culture involves the aspects of social life most actively involved in by the public. As

the ‘culture of the people’, popular culture is determined by the interactions between people in their everyday

activities: styles of dress, the use of slang, greeting rituals and the foods that people eat are all examples of popular

culture. Schmitz (2012) defines popular culture as the media, products, and attitudes considered to be part of the

mainstream of a given culture and the everyday life of common people. It is often distinct from more formal

conceptions of culture that take into account moral, social, religious beliefs and values, such as our earlier definition

of culture. It is also distinct from what some consider elite or high culture.

According to LeRoy (2010), Popular culture (or pop culture) is the entirety of ideas, perspectives,

attitudes, images, and other phenomena that are within the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture

30

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

of the early to mid-20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century. Heavily

influenced by mass media, this collection of ideas permeates the everyday lives of the society. The most common

pop culture categories are: entertainment (movies, music, TV), sports, news (as in people/places in news), politics,

fashion/clothes, technology and slang (LeRoy, 2010). There are a number of generally agreed elements comprising

popular culture. For example, popular culture encompasses the most immediate and contemporary aspects of our

lives. These aspects are often subject to rapid change, especially in a highly technological world in which people are

brought closer and closer by omnipresent media. Certain standards and commonly held beliefs are reflected in pop

culture. Because of its commonality, pop culture both reflects and influences people’s everyday life (Petracca &

Sorapure, 2011).

Delaney (2007) explains that popular culture allows large heterogeneous masses of people to identify

collectively. It serves an inclusionary role in society as it unites the masses on ideals of acceptable forms of behavior.

Along with forging a sense of identity which binds individuals to the greater society, consuming pop culture items

often enhances an individual’s prestige in their peer group. Further, popular culture, unlike folk or high culture,

provides individuals with a chance to change the prevailing sentiments and norms of behavior, as we shall see. So,

popular culture appeals to people because it provides opportunities for both individual happiness and communal

bonding (Delaney, 2007). Popular culture is often viewed as being trivial and “dumbed down” in order to find

consensual acceptance throughout the mainstream. As a result, it comes under heavy criticism from various non-

mainstream sources (most notably religious groups and countercultural groups) which deem it superficial,

consumerist, sensationalist, or corrupt (Baßler, 2002; Bakhtin,1981; Browne, Ray & Pat, 2001).

The term “popular culture” was coined in the 19th century or earlier (Burke, 1990).Traditionally, popular

culture was associated with poor education and the lower classes (Freitag, 1998), as opposed to the “official culture”

and higher education of the upper classes (Gans, 1974; Gerson, 2009). The stress in the distinction from “official

culture” became more pronounced towards the end of the 19th century (Hassabian, 1999), a usage that became

established by the interbellum period (Knight, 1998). From the end of World War II, following major cultural and

social changes brought by mass media innovations, the meaning of popular culture began to overlap with those of

mass culture, media culture, image culture, consumer culture, and culture for mass consumption (Ross, 1989). Social

and cultural changes in the United States were a pioneer in this with respect to other western countries.

The contrasting implications associated with the history of the idea of popular culture are clearly noted by

Williams (1976). Referring to a ‘shift in perspective’ between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, he notes that

‘popular’ meant ‘being seen from the point of view of the people rather than from those seeking favour or power

over them’. However, ‘the earlier sense had not died.’ This meant that ‘popular culture was not identified by the

people but by others.’ It also ‘carries two older senses: inferior kinds of work (cf. popular literature, popular press as

distinguished from quality press); and work deliberately setting out to win favor (popular journalism as distinguished

from democratic journalism, or popular entertainment); as well as the more modern sense of well-liked by many

people’. Last, ‘the recent sense of popular culture as the culture actually made by people for themselves is different

from all these; it is often displaced to the past as folk culture but it is also an important modern emphasis’ (Williams,

1976, p.199).There are numerous sources of popular culture.

As implied above, a primary source is the mass media, especially popular music, film, television, radio,

video games, books and the internet. In addition, advances in communication allows for the greater transmission of

ideas by word of mouth, especially via cell phones. Many TV programs, such as American Idol and the Last Comic

Standing, provide viewers with a phone number so that they can vote for a contestant. This combining of pop culture

sources represents a novel way of increasing public interest, and further fuels the mass production of commodities

(Delaney, 2007). According to Schmitz (2012) for as long as mass media have existed in the United States, they have

helped to create and fuel mass crazes, skyrocketing celebrities, and pop culture manias of all kinds. Whether through

newspaper advertisements, live television broadcasts, or integrated Internet marketing, media industry “tastemakers”

help to shape what we care about.

Even in our era of seemingly limitless entertainment options, mass hits like American Idol still have the

ability to dominate the public’s attention. Delaney (2007) also opines that popular culture is also influenced by

professional entities that provide the public with information. These sources include the news media, scientific and

scholarly publications, and ‘expert’ opinion from people considered an authority in their field. For example, a news

station reporting on a specific topic, say the effects of playing violent video games, will seek a noted psychologist or

31

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

sociologist who has published in this area. This strategy is a useful way of influencing the public and may shape their

collective opinions on a particular subject. At the very least, it provides a starting point for public discourse and

differing opinions. News stations often allow viewers to call or email in their opinions, which may be shared with the

public. Delaney (2007) further states that a seemingly contradictory source of popular culture is individualism. Urban

culture has not only provided a common ground for the masses, it has inspired ideals of individualistic aspirations. In

the United States, a society formed on the premise of individual rights; there are theoretically no limitations to what

an individual might accomplish. An individual may choose to participate in all that is ‘popular’ for popularity’s sake;

or they may choose a course of action off the beaten track. At times, these ‘pathfinders’ affect popular culture by their

individuality. Of course, once a unique style becomes adopted by others, it ceases to remain unique. It becomes,

popular (Delaney 2007).

MTV BASE and Popular Culture

The amount of media products consumed by young people has drastically expanded in recent years,

allowing them to compose their own ‘media menu’ with their own preferences and likings. The youth itself is

undergoing a period of rapid change, likewise the ways in which young people use the media. The advent of cable

and satellite television has boosted TV viewing in recent years (Johnsson-Samaragdi, 1994). Osgerby (1998) further

points out that the post-modern age brought with it the proliferation of media and information technologies which

challenged traditional conceptions of time and space, symbolized most apparently by the global cultural flows and

images evident in the programming of Music Television (MTV). MTV is well known as an entertainment television

that airs not only music videos, but reality TV shows and other entertainment programmes. Auderheide (1986)

describes MTV as offering not simply videos, but environment and mood.

The goal of MTV executive Bob Pittman, the man who designed the channel is simple: his job, he says is

to ‘amplify the mood and include MTV in the mood.’ Young Americans he argues are ‘television babies’ particularly

attracted to appeals to heart rather than head. ‘If you can get their emotions going,’ he says, ‘forget their logic,

you’ve got ‘em…’ Music videos invent the world they represent. And the people whose ‘natural’ universe is that of

shopping malls are eager to participate in the process. Watching music videos may be diverting, but the process that

music videos embody, echo, and encourage- the constant re-creation of an unstable self is a full time job

(Auderheide, 1986, p. 118).

With all these ‘razz-ma-tazz’ on the airwaves, a lot of young people also want to have a feel of what is

shown on television, which evidently they cannot afford. This leads them to engage in crimes, prostitution, etc, just

to keep up. It is obvious that this fad is already taking hold of the Nigerian entertainment television industry. Reimer

(1995) posits that young people’s use of the mass media binds them together more than any social activity (and hence

their relationship with social change). Young people could be said to be united through their pursuit of pleasure

through the mass media. The media (or the people behind it) are skilled at knowing what will appeal to the mass

teenagers and use skillful manipulation to get messages across, buy into an idea or product that communicates an

idea – like the status of having the latest ipod, i-touch or cell phone.

However, Côté and Allahar (1996) argue that the manner in which the mass media, especially television

portray aspects of the outside world might be said to actively prevent young people from developing a critical

consciousness that will allow them prioritize larger issues of personal and social responsibility. They posit that since

young people are bombarded by the media with images of seemingly ‘good life,’ it is not surprising that they are

dispirited by the reality of their poor economic prospects… what lies at the heart of all this activity. Côté and Allahar

(1996) add that,

however, is the fact that these media can sell young people some element

of an identity they have been taught to crave… leisure industries such as

music, fashion, and cosmetics have a largely uncritical army of

consumers awaiting the next craze or fad. Each fad gives them a sense of

identity, however, illusory or fleeting. p.148.

Shoneka (2013) points out that these Nigerian youth audiences have unlimited access to media

representations of African-American music and culture. For almost a decade, MTV’s African network, MTV Base,

has infused American culture through the collective consciousness of millions of youths in countries all over the

continent like South Africa, Kenya, Ghana, and Nigeria. On its website, MTV Base states that it “is a 24-hour

32

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

English language music television channel reaching 48.5 million African viewers in 10.5 million households in 48

countries in sub-Saharan Africa.” As its mission, MTV base is “targeted at mass African youth … (with the aim of)

celebrating the cultural vibrancy and creativity of African music and artists” (Shoneka, 2013).

Jones (2005) states that MTV, Music Television, continues to be a powerful cultural force. First

introduced in the U.S. in 1981, MTV had an immediate impact on popular music, visual style, and culture. MTV was

first to explore and introduce what are now staples of popular culture: It brought us “mega-events” such as LiveAid,

the merging of popular music and corporate sponsorship, “unplugged” acoustic performances, and reality

programming in the form of The Real World. MTV quickly became an iconic presence in popular culture, not only

inspiring visual media culture (Miami Vice, for example) but also inspiring songs about it (Dire Straits’ Money for

Nothing and Beck’s MTV Makes Me Wanna Smoke Crack are two very different examples). Jones (2005) identifies

two important reasons why MTV`s impact should be studied. The first and most important reason is that MTV

continues to have an impact on popular culture, now on a global scale. Within a few years of launching in the U.S.,

and thanks in some part to the success of its 17 hours of international live coverage of the Live Aid benefit concert in

1985, MTV launched cable and satellite channels outside the U.S. MTV Networks now include the following: MTV

Brazil, MTV Canada, MTV China, MTV/MTV2 Europe, MTV France, MTV/MTV2 Germany, MTV Holland, MTV

India MTV Italy, MTV Japan, MTV Korea, MTV Latin America, MTV Nordic, MTV Poland, MTV Romania, MTV

Russia, MTV South East Asia, MTV Spain, MTV Taiwan/HK, MTV UK, and MTV Base.

MTV Networks has cultivated similar relationships on a global scale within the regions in which it

operates. Having learned in India in the early 1990s that it could not simply reproduce its U.S. programming in other

parts of the world (if only because of competition from local or regional broadcasters), MTV Networks in 1996

launched MTV India. In the case of China, for example, MTV Networks forged an alliance with CETV, “a

production company and satellite broadcaster… [with] a long-term strategy of nurturing relationships with Chinese

authorities” (Weber, 2003, p. 282). MTV now follows a policy of airing local content in at least 70% of its

programming, thereby “successfully replacing its ‘Classic Coke’ global image with a retailored programme format

that meets local political, advertiser and consumer tastes” (Weber, 2003 p. 286). One consequence of such economic

practices can be seen in the reinforcement of the cultural impacts of MTV Networks globally. In an era of

globalization, when local and regional cultures are unsettled, fluid, and challenged by global culture, it is not

surprising that multinational advertisers and marketers would seize upon a youth-oriented global brand such as MTV

(Jones, 2005).

Influence of MTV BASE Popular Culture on Dressing Patterns of Undergraduates in Nigeria

What someone is wearing often forms the first impression about the character of the person and the

perceptions of students in terms of credibility, character, and likeability. Hence c ulture is seen as the totality of

learned, socially-transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects and behavior. It includes the ideas, value, customs

and artifacts of a group of people (Schaefer, 2002). Although, there are no universally acceptable way or ways of

dressing, dresses are meant to serve some definable purposes, country or region notwithstanding. They are part of a

peoples’ culture and they define their tribal or ethnic identity.

Apart from dresses being a means for cultural identity, they are for ornamental or aesthetic purposes, for

protection of the body against harsh weather conditions as well as for covering the intimate parts of the body

(Answer.com, 2011; & Articlesbase.com, 2011). These purposes are important especially as they form major aspects

of a person’s personality. But as important as these purposes are, they have been defeated by the generation of

Nigerian youths (Articlesbase.com, 2011). Their dress patterns are most times unAfrican, and are invented. They

usually dress in a manner that does not show that they are responsible (nigerianfilms.com, 2009). The African culture

and particularly that of Nigeria encourage modesty in appearance as do the Christian and Islamic religions where the

larger population of these youths claimed to be worshipping God (Omede, 2011). Every culture according to

Articlesbase.com (2011) has its dressing code that may vary according to cultures. Despite this variation, one thing is

certain and that is that every culture has an acceptable dress code. So every dress code that deviates from the one

acceptable to the community especially as it affects the set moral standard or judgment of the community is termed

indecent. Cultural dresses of the Hausa, Igbo Yoruba and other ethnic groups in Nigeria are the quintessence of a true

Nigerian culture. The Hausa caftan, the Igbo trouser and long silk top, and the Yoruba Dansiki, Buba and Soro and

Agbada are really identity markers.

33

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

Students of higher institutions, especially universities and polytechnics, are sometimes accused of

dressing indecently within campuses. Commenting on indecent dressing, the duo of Amadi and Egboka (2007, p. 13)

lament that “out of every 10 people on the street, 4-6 of them dress indecently”. The terms-decency and indecency-

have so much to do with the morality of the individual person and as judged by others. A dress is therefore, said to be

indecent when it has provocative or stimulating influence on almost all those that happen to view it on the user. It is

according to Source Magazine on Line (2011), any outfit that shows too much skin. Egwim (2010) referred to

indecent dressing in a more specific term as the attitude of someone, male or female that dresses to showoff parts of

the body such as the breasts, buttocks or even the underwear particularly those of the ladies that need to be covered.

This exposure is obviously a deliberate act to look sensuous, tantalizing and stimulating so as to draw the attention of

the opposite sex and is more prevalent among singles (unmarried women and men). This form of dressing is

provocative (Olori, 2003), improper and unacceptable (Source Magazine on Line, 2011).

Nigerian youths are increasingly adopting wholesale cultural values that are alien and not compatible with

the Nigerian way of life (Otufodurin, 2011). The Nigerian youth may not be totally responsible for lack of

appreciation of our culture. Famous among vehicles of cultural imperialism are the mass media. According to Iyarza

(2014) Television, with its visual, audio and motion capacities ranks among the most influential medium of

communication in recent times. Television programs are transmitted at the local level to the local audience, national

level to the national audience who cut across different ethnic groups and religion, and global level to the international

community or audience who are situated within different countries of different continents. Global television, which

includes satellite transmission of programs from one country to many other countries, is the most vibrant instrument

of cultural imperialism. Iyarza (2014) explains further that television has structural characteristics of visual images,

motion and audio capacities that are creatively combined with the specific context of the transmitted messages by

means of electromagnetic waves. In Nigeria, 60% of the population of more than 160 million including youths is

reached through television broadcast with both positive and negative impacts (Iyorza, 2007).

Cultural promotions through global television have enormous impact on the Nigerian youth today.

Cultural promotions are made possible by a set of cosmopolitan culture considered to be elite and popular, scientific

and artistic and linked through the medium of English as a universal rather than a national language (Hirst &

Thompson, 1999). Iyarza (2014) points out that western dance have taken over African traditional dances among the

youths in public places. Foreign meals including fried rice, vegetable salads, baked snacks and canned foods have

become more preferred to African delicacies such as “abacha and “Ugba (meal made of cassava and vegetables‟ ‟

and other condiments) and fried beans cake known in local parlance as “akara . Language as a means of‟

communication, styles of houses and even schools have assumed similar with what is available in the western world

(Iyarza, 2014). Cultural promotions actually influence the taste, lives and aspirations of virtually every nation and in

some way; they are viewed as corrupting and antagonistic to subcultures of the third world countries (Rothkopt,

2000).

The promotion of cultures through global television programs like drama, dance, music and advertising

negatively affects viewers. Violent and aggressive behavior depicted on the television screen consumes children and

affect teenagers. The trend is on the increase with a great leap in communication technological development where

they receive great amount of information regarding new fashion and fad and other products (Nwagbara, 2006). With

the opportunity provided by the new media, Nigerian youths today spend more time watching global television

programs such as musicals (MTV BASE) which are corrupted with nudity and suggestive dance steps, drama series

with strong story lines of love, action movies featuring gangsters, acts of shooting, and killings, including modes of

dressing, speaking and killing as well as modes of walking which are unacceptable in the context of African (Iyarza,

2014).

Method of study

For this study, the survey research method was adopted to investigate the influence of popular culture on

dressing patterns of Delta State University Students who watch MTV BASE programmes. This was chosen because

of the effectiveness of survey research method in studying the attitudes and opinion of people, and in enhancing the

study of both small and large number of people that derived from the entire population and share basic characteristics

of the elements that make up that population (Asika, 2009, p. 29; Nwodu, 2006, p. 67). Furthermore, the survey

34

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

method affords the researcher opportunity to rate the influence of MTV BASE popular culture on undergraduates

dressing patterns.

Area of Study

Delta State University Abraka is in the South-South geopolitical zone in Nigeria. It is a state-owned

university of Delta State Government. It is made up five faculties and several departments. Students who watch

MTV BASE programmes are scattered in the various departments. It is the opinion of the students especially those

who regularly watch MTV BASE programmes that was sought to help the researcher address the research problem.

Population of Study

The population of Delta State University Students according to Delta State University Academic Planning Unit is

11,856, cutting across 10 faculties and 54 departments in three campuses.

Sample and Sampling Technique

According to Owuamalam (2012), it is difficult to deal with an entire population in a research study, more so, where

the population is large and scattered across a large expanse of territory, it therefore means that a manageable number

of subjects have to be selected to represent the population studied; hence the fraction of a population that represent it

is known as a sample.

The purposive sampling technique was adopted for this study to avoid sampling a particular respondent

twice and to ensure that those sampled are real students of Delta State University and consume MTV Base content.

The purposive sampling enables the researcher to eliminate other members of the population and work with those

that meet the requirement (Ohaja, 2003). Students of Delta State University were chosen to be studied because that is

where the researcher will be able to locate those who are viewers of MTV BASE popular culture programmes. The

Taro Yamane’s formula was used in finding the sample size of the population. It gave 382 as the sample size.

Measuring Instrument

The questionnaire was divided into two sections A and B. Section A contains personal data items

inquiring the student’s age, sex, and year of study. Section B sought information on maybe the students watch MTV

BASE Programmes, how often they watch MTV BASE Programmes, maybe their dressing patterns are influenced by

their watching MTV BASE programmes etc. Copies of a questionnaire were administered to students by the

researchers and collected immediately; the reason is to avoid likely misplacement, loss, or misuse of copies the

questionnaire. The questions were designed as close-ended in order to reduce the response time.

Presentation and Analysis of Data

Obtained data were presented in frequency tables, with classifications, based on mutually exclusive

categories (Nwodu, 2017). The tables are numbered and properly identified to reflect its content. 382 copies of

questionnaire were distributed, returned and found usable for data analysis.

The inferential analyses done were to determine if there is a significant relationship between variables and

to provide statistical premise for generalisation. This technique provides the base to draw conclusion or relationship

between variables. The chi-square goodness of fit was used in obtaining results by testing the research hypothesis.

Owing to its simplicity, the research employed the use of simple frequency distribution table as tools of

data presentation. Further, the data were presented in simple percentage for clarity of purpose while analysing data

for the research work, chi-square (Goodness of fit) was used to test stated hypothesis for this research work.

Demographic Data

All the 382 copies of questionnaire administered in this study were returned and found useable. Therefore

the researchers worked with 382 copies of the questionnaire, which is valid for this study. It was observed that 169

persons representing 44.2% are males, while 213 person representing 55.8 are females, as elicited via the

questionnaire. The age bracket shows that 71% were with the age range of 20-25 years, 25% were within the age

range of 26-30, while that of the people between 31-above was 4. The variable of year of study shows that 52

35

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

persons representing 14% were year 1 students, 85 persons representing 22% were year 2, while 110 persons

representing 29% were year 3 students and 135 persons representing 35% were year 4 students.

Respondents and MTV Base

Table 1: Respondents exposure to MTV Base

Response Frequency Percentage

Less than 1 hours daily 40 10

1 – 2 hours daily 112 29

3 – 4 hours daily 200 52

5 hours and above daily 30 9

Total 382 100

Data presented indicated the answer to the Research Question One. Forty or 10% out of 382 people

interviewed indicated less than 1 hour, 112 or 29% indicated 1- 2 hours, 200 or 52% indicated 3 – 4 hours, 30 or 9%

of respondents also indicated 5 hours and above. This means that greater percentage of students spend 3 -4 hours

watching MTV BASE Programmes.

Table 2: Whether respondents dressing patterns are influenced by their viewership of MTV BASE programme.

Response Frequency Percentage

Yes 228 59.69

No 108 28.27

Can’t Say 46 12.04

Total 382 100

Data from Table 2 above indicated the answer to the Research Question Two. Two hundred and twenty

eight (59.69%) of 382 respondents indicated Yes, meaning that their dressing patterns are influenced by their

viewership of MTV BASE programme, 108 (28.27%) of the respondents indicated No, meaning that their dressing

patterns are not influenced by their viewership of MTV BASE programme. Forty six (12.04) of the respondents

indicated Can’t Say.

Table 3: Cultural implications of MTV BASE programmes on the dressing patterns of the respondents.

Response Frequency Percentage

It causes cultural imperialism 50 13.1

It aids erosion of folk culture 50 13.1

It promotes indecency among Nigerian youths 70 18.3

All of the above 212 55.5

Total 382 100

36

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

Data presented indicated the answer to the Research Question Three. Fifty (13.1%) out of 382

respondents indicated cultural imperialism as the cultural implications of MTV BASE Programmes, 50 (13.1%)

respondents indicated erosion of folk culture, 70 (18.3%) of the respondents indicated promotion of indecency

among Nigerian youths while 212(55.5%) of the respondents indicated all of the above. This means that greater

percentage of the respondents believes that MTV BASE Programmes causes cultural imperialism, aids erosion of

folk culture and promotes indecency among Nigerian youths.

Table 4: Significant relationship between the respondents’ viewership of MTV BASE programmes and the erosion

of African culture.

Response Frequency Percentage

Yes 260 68

No 92 24

Can’t Say 30 8

Total 382 100

Data presentation in the above table indicated the answer to the research question. 260 (68%) of 382

respondents indicated Yes meaning that they believe that there is a significant relationship between viewership of

MTV BASE Programmes and erosion of African culture, 92 (24%) of the respondents indicated No meaning that

they believe there is no significant relationship between viewership of MTV BASE Programmes and erosion of

African culture, also 30 (8%) also indicated Can’t Say. These means that greater percentage of the respondents

agreed that there is significant relationship between viewership of MTV BASE Programmes and erosion of African

culture.

Test of Hypothesis

One null hypothesis was verified in this work and the results are presented below;

Hypotheses One

There is no significant relationship between respondents’ viewership of MTV BASE programmes and

erosion of African culture.

Data on the relationship between respondents’ viewership of MTV BASE Programmesand erosion of African

culture

Variables

Observed

Frequency

Expected

Frequency O -O -2(O – )2

Yes 260 9.25 -72.5 2556.25 56.82

No 92 9.25 27.5 756.26 8.17

Can’t say 30 9.25 -72.5 2556.25 56.82

Total 382 121.81

Sources: Field Survey, 2017

37

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

X2 cal = 121 -81, 9 = 0.05

Df = K-1, = 4 -1= 3

To determine the calculated chi-square table using the formula

The degree of freedom (df) = k – 1

Where k = Number of rows (4)

I = Constant

In this study df = 4 – 1 = 3

Formula to be used

X2 = ∑ (fo-fe) 2

fe

Where X2= Calculated chi-square values

Fo = Observed frequency

Fe = Expected frequency

∑ = summation sign

Result of the chi-square analysis of hypothesis one

Response Frequency DF Alpha X2Cal X2Cal Remark

Yes 260

No 92

Can’t Say 30 3 0.05 129.98 6.25 Significance

Total 382

Sources: Field Survey, 2017.

The test above shows that chi-square calculated which is 129.98 is greater than chi-square that is critical

value of square which is 6.25 (under 3 degree of freedom and a probability level of 0.05) the decision rule is that null

hypothesis should be rejected if the calculated chi-square is greater than critical value the above stat automotive

hypothesis is now accepted. It means that there is significant relationship between the respondents’ viewership of

MTV BASE Programmes and erosion of African culture.

Discussion of Findings

In this section an attempt is made to critically examine the findings and other implications, more so, the

research questions and hypothesis. The first research question was designed to ascertain the respondents’ frequency

of exposure to MTV BASE programmes. According to the research findings, majority of the students (Respondents)

indicated they spend 3-4 hours viewing MTV BASE programmes while some say 1-2 hours and above which few

respondents indicated to that. This is in line with a study conducted by Usaini (2010) which found that there was

heavy exposure to entertainment TV by teenagers, as students admitted spending a minimum of an hour every day to

38

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

watch it thereby cultivating some social values from TV such as fashion. There is every likelihood, therefore, that

exposure to MTV Base may influence their dressing patterns.

Furthermore, research question two was asked to find out whether respondents dressing patterns are

influenced by their viewership of MTV BASE programmes. The result shows that the respondents dressing patterns

are influenced by MTV BASE Programmes as they frequently consume the media contents which are stuffed with

popular culture. This is probably because the music station portrays what is appealing to the youths thereby exposing

them to pop culture. It was also discovered that due to constant viewing of MTV BASE programmes, the dressing

patterns of youths are influenced by the way the pop artist dress while singing which MTV BASE portrays without

discrimination. This is not unconnected to the fact that African youths of nowadays prefer westernized ways of

dressing, speaking and dancing which can be blamed on the fact that the international media functions as a channels

through which the western world impose their culture on the rest of the world.

This finding therefore is in line with a study done by Usaini (2010) which established that there was

heavy exposure to entertainment TV by the teenagers, as they admitted that they spend a minimum of an hour every

day to watch it. Therefore, they learnt some social values from TV such as fashion (this is evident in the way many of

them dress), communication, family life, etc. the Social Learning Theory also justifies this finding since the theory

suggests that much learning takes place through observing the behaviour of others (Anaeto, et al, 2008). Bandura

(1986) says, “People learn behaviours, emotional reactions, and attitudes from role models whom they wish to

emulate.” The social learning theory has a general application to socialising effects of media and the adoption of

various models of action as it applies to many everyday matters such as clothing, appearance, style, eating and

drinking, modes of interaction and personal consumption.

The third research question was designed to ascertain the cultural implications MTV BASE programmes

have on the dressing patterns of the respondents. The result gathered revealed that cultural imperialism, erosion of

folk culture and promotion of indecency among Nigerian youths are some of the cultural implications of MTV BASE

Programmes on the dressing patterns of undergraduates. This is in line with a conclusion drawn by Osgerby (1998)

who points out that the post-modern age brought with it the proliferation of media and information technologies

which challenged traditional conceptions of time and space, symbolised most apparently by the global cultural flows

and images evident in the programming of Music Television (MTV). There is no doubt that the impact of the media

on young people’s lives is broadly considered within what is referred to as “media effects” debate which to a great

extent focuses on the potentially negative impact of the media on young people’s lives: video violence, gambling,

educational performance, mass consumerism, etc. (Miles, 2000).

The fourth research question was asked to find out whether there is significant relationship between the

respondents’ viewership of MTV BASE programmes and the erosion of African culture. The findings reveal that

there is significant relationship between viewership of MTV BASE Programmes and erosion of African culture. This

was hypothetically tested proving that the degeneration of African culture is traceable to the massive bombardment

of African youths by Music Television with technically and pervasively content-embedded foreign cultural goods

which subtly but massively superimposes its self on other cultures thereby causing heavy erosion of African culture.

This is because African youths who are supposed to be the custodians and upholders of African cultures which was

passed down to them by their ancestors are now more comfortable with foreign cultures causing them to abandon

their own or treating African culture with reckless abandon.

This supports the assertion of Dennis and Merrill, (1984) that Media imperialism results in implants of

western cultures, ideas and values on African countries, thus upsetting their natural evolutionary development; it has

become an unrelenting one way flow of ideas from western countries to the African nations. The western media has

destroyed the national cultures and brought African and the rest of the third world their control (economic and

political hegemony). In addition to dominating and manipulating news flow, the developed countries practice other

forms of hegemony over communication institutions of the Third World…, advertising, magazines and television

programs are today instruments of cultural domination and acculturation, transmitting to the developing countries

messages which are harmful to their cultures, contrary to their values, and detrimental to their development aims and

efforts. (Masmoudi, 1981; Richstand & Anderson, 1981). Uwah (2009) found that most films encode not only the

current trends in the society, but also the reality of African cultures grappling with Western influences since after

colonialism, which leaves viewers with a somewhat jaundiced concept of what is African and authentic

communalism. Uwah (2009) notes that sometimes Nigerian movies that reflect real African cultures which represent

39

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

the dressing codes in traditional settings, but most of the times some Nigerian movies acted with costumes cannot be

said to be wholly African, or part of Nigerian cultures.

The above findings justified the use of the Social Learning Theory, as propounded by Albert Bandura, for

this research work. Albert Bandura posits that “people learn behaviours, emotional reactions, and attitudes from role

models whom they wish to emulate.” This suggests that much learning takes place through observing the behaviour

of others (Anaeto, et al, 2008).

Conclusion

From the data presented and analysed, the researchers conclude that when university students are

frequently exposed to MTV BASE programmes for several hours, by constantly viewing of the Music Station, it

could result into cultural imperialism and erosion of folk culture because they may gravitate towards imbibing to

what they watch on television to the detriment of our indigenous ways of dressing.

Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:

i. MTV BASE should stop over-centralisation of foreign music which are shown in all their stations across the globe

forcing viewers to watch and appreciate other people’s culture while their own is facing extinction.

ii. University students in Nigeria should be more responsible by preferring Nigerian culture to others by the way they

dress, talk and dance rather than cultivating and adopting alien cultures that constantly put them under criticism.

iii. Government should regulate the contents of cable stations accessible to Nigerian youths in order to reduce the

penetration of western cultures which the youths seem to prefer.

40

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

References

Allen, B. J. (2005). Social constructionism. In S. May & D. K. Mumby (Eds.), Engaging organizational

communication theory and research: multiple perspectives (pp. 35–53). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Anadi, C. C., & Egboka, P. N. (2007). “Indecent dressing among female undergraduate of Nnamdi

Azikiwe University, Awka: Implication for Reforms in Education”. Unizik Orient Journal of Education, 3

(1), 13-21.

American Psychological Association, (2007).Task force on the sexualization of girls report of the APA

Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/wpo/sexualizationrep.pdf.

Anaeto, S. G., Onabanjo, S. O., & Osifeso, B. J. (2008). Models and theories of communication.

Maryland, Nigeria: African Renaissance Books Incorporated

Answer.com (2011). Why do people wear clothes? Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/Q/ why-do-

people- wear-clothes

Articlesbase.com (2011). Curbing moral mecadence in our educational sector. Retrieved rom

http://www.articlesbase.com/college-and-university-articles/curbing-moral- decadence-in-our-

educational-sector-4692398.html.

Asika, N. (2009). Research methodology in the behavioural sciences. Lagos: Longman Nigeria Plc.

Auderheide, P. (1986). The look of the sound. In T. Gitlin (Ed.), Watching television. New York, NY:

Panthon.

Baßler M. (2002): Der deutsche Pop-Roman. Die neuen Archivisten (The German Pop-Novel. The new

archivists). München: C.H. Beck.

Bakhtin, M. M., Michael H, Vadim L, & Brostrom K. (1981) The dialogic imagination: Four essays

(University of Texas Press Slavic Series). Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael

Holquist. Austin and London: University of Texas Press.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall.

Browne, Ray B. & Pat Browne??? (2001). The guide to U.S. popular culture 1010 pages; essays by

experts on many topics.

Burke, P. (1990). “Popular culture reconsidered,” Storia della Storiografia, Issue 17, pp 40–49

Côté, J. & Allahar, A. L. (1996). Generation on hold: coming of age in the late twentieth century. New

York: New York University Press.

Cyril de Run, E., Butt, M., & Yen Nee, C., (2010). The influence of role models on young adults

purchase. Jurnal Kemanusiaan 4, (5): 52-65

Egwim, C. (2010). Indecent dressing among youths. Retrieved from http://www.es/networld.com/

webpages/features.

Ekwuru G (1999). The pangs of an African culture in travail. Owerri, Nigeria: Totan publishers limited.

Folarin, B. (2005). Theories of mass communication: an introductory text (3rd ed.). Ibadan, Nigeria:

Bakinfol Publications.

41

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

Freitag, S. B. (1989)”Popular culture in the rewriting of history: An essay in comparative history and

historiography,” Peasant Studies, Vol. 16 Issue 3, pp 169–198. See how to reference journal articles above

Gans, H. J. (1974). Popular culture and high culture: an analysis and evaluation of taste. New York, NY:

Basic Books.

Gergen, K. J. (1999). An invitation to social construction. London, England: Sage.

Gerson, S. (2009). “‘A World of their own’: searching for popular culture in the French countryside.”

French Politics, Culture and Society, Summer, 27 (2), 94–110

George-Okoro, T. G. (2008). The effects of movies with sex content on teenage sexual attitudes and

values. Unpublished undergraduate thesis of the Department of Human Resource Development

(Psychology), College of Development Studies, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State

Griffin, E (2002). Popular culture in industrializing England, Historical Journal, Sept, 45 (3): 619–35.

Hassabian, A. (1999). “Popular”. In Horner, Bruce & Swiss, Thomas Malden (Eds), Key terms in popular

music and culture. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers.

Hill, A. (2005). Reality TV: Audiences and popular factual television. London, England: Routledge.

Hirst, P., & Thompson, G. (1999). Globalization in question. Cambridge, England: Polity,

Hood, T.(n.d.). Teen icons: cultural images and adolescent Behavior. Retrieved from

http://smu.edu/ecenter/discourse (Accessed October 22, 2015).

Iyorza, S. (2007). Globalization, television and the dress culture of Nigerian university ladies,” paper

presented at Ph.D. Seminar in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Johnsson-Smaragdi, U. (1994). Models of change & stability in adolescents media use. In E.K.

Rosengren, (Ed.), Media effects and beyond: culture, socialization and lifestyles. London, England:

Routledge.

Jones .S (2005). MTV: the medium was the message. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 22 (1):

83-88.

Knight, R. H. (1998). The Age of consent: The rise of relativism and the corruption of popular culture.

Dallas: Spence Publishing Co.

Kwame Y (2007). The impact of globalization on African culture. University of Southern Denmark

LeRoy. A. (2010). The rising of popular culture: A historiographical sketch, OAH Magazine of History,

24.11–14.

Miles, S. & Anderson, A. (1999). ‘Just do it?’ Young people, the global media and the construction of

consumer meanings. In A. Raiph, J. Laughan. & T. Lees, (eds.), Youth and the Global Media (pp. 105-

112). Luton: Luton University Press.

McQuail, D. (2005). Mass communication theory (5th ed.). London, England: Sage Publication.

Miles, S. (2000). Youth lifestyles in a changing world. Buckingham, England: Open University Press.

Murray, S., & Oulette, L. (Eds.). (2004). Reality TV: remaking television culture. New York, NY: New

York University Press.

42

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

Nigerianfilms.com (2009). Campus dress code: striking a balance between

modernity and modesty. Retrieved from http://www.modernghana.com/movie/3754/3/hello.htm.

Nwabueze, E. (2010) Democratization and the dialectics of culture in contemporary Nigeria. A paper

presented at the inaugural NICO lecture series, organised by the National Institute for Cultural

Orientation at NICON Luxury Hotel, Garki-Abuja, December 16th.

Nwagbara, E. (2006). Sociology of mass communication. Calabar, Nigeria: El-Sapphire Ltd.

Nwodu, L. C. (2006). Research and icts relevance innovation diffusion. The Nigerian Journal of

Communication. Vol. 4, Nos 1& 2.

Nwodu, L. C. (2017). Research in communication and other behavioural sciences: Principles, methods

and issues (2nd Rev. Ed). Enugu: Rhyce Kerex Publishers.

Okere S., & Uwom O.O. (2012). Magazine celebrity features, youth modeling and career aspiration.

Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (OMAN Chapter), 2, (5): 22-33.

Otufodurin, L. (2011). Cultural dilemma. Retrieved from http://www.thenationonline.net.

Olori, T. (2003). Culture-Nigeria: “indecent” dressing banned on the

campus. Retrieved from http://wwwipsnews.net/africa/interna.asp?idnews=20018.

Orbe M. P (2010). Media and culture: the “reality” of media effects.

Western Michigan University. Available at http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upmbinaries/48649

_ch_11.pdf date accessed 05 July 2015.

Osgerby, B. (1998). Youth in Britain since 1945. Oxford: Blackwell.

Owuamalam, E. (2012). Data analysis & research project writing. Owerri: Top Class Agencies Ltd.

Ross, A. (1989). No respect: intellectuals & popular culture. (pp 269). New York: Routledge.

Rothkopt, D (2000). “In precise of cultural imperialism,” globalization and the challenges of a new

century, Bloomington: Indiana.

Schroeder, E. R. (2006). “Sexual racism” and reality television: privileging the white male prerogative on

MTV’s the real world. In D. S. Escoffery (Ed.), How real is reality TV: essays on representation and truth

(pp. 180–195). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.

Schlecht, C. (January 15, 2003) ‘Celebrities’ impact on branding’.http://worldlywriter.com/images/portfo

lio/Proposals/Celebrity_Brandin .pdf. Accessed June 26, 2015.

Source Magazine on Line (2011). Indecent dressing on campus. Retrieved June 10, 2015 from

http://sbg670.orbitaltec.net/assiw/indec1029.html.

Smith, M. J., & Wood, A. F. (Eds.). (2003). Survivor lessons: essays on communication and reality

television. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.

Steele, J. R. & Brown, J. D. (1995). Adolescent room culture: studying media in the context of everyday

life. Journal of youth and adolescence. 24(5): 551-576.

43

CRUTECH Journal of Communication (CJC), Vol. No. 1, 26-44.

Usaini S. (2010). “Perceived Role of Entertainment Television in Shaping Social Behavior of

Teenagers”. A Master of Science degree thesis presented to the department of Mass Communication,

College of Development Studies, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Uwaezuoke, Obioha (2011). Globilisation and the future of African culture. Retrieved from

https.//wenku.baidu.com.

Uwah, I.E. (2009). “From Ritual to Film: A case Study of the Visual Rhetoric of Igbo Culture in

Nollywood Films”. A PhD thesis submitted to Dublin City University, Ireland.

Wilson, L. (2009). Celebrity role model: how does celebrity behaviour

influence us. Retrieved from http://worldlywriter.com/images/portfolio/Proposals/Celebrity_Brandin.

Williams, R. (1976). Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society, London, Fontana.

Whitehurst, T. (2004). Jesus on parenting. Lagos: Edysyl Christian Bookshop and Library

44

  • Media and Culture: The Intersections and Interventions

    This paper sets out to x-ray how the media and culture intertwine, and how this relationship can be used to forestall the erosion of Nigeria`s cultural heritage, preserve them, as well as promote and publicise them. Adopting the analytical approach as a method, this paper is anchored on the Cultural Norms theory. The study found that the erosion of our culture is being aided and perpetrated by the foreign media (social media inclusive). The study comes to the conclusion that our culture is so sacrosanct to our existence that it cannot be left to be eroded by foreign cultures, and therefore recommends that indigenous media should tilt most of their programmes in favour of our indigenous cultures. It also recommends that the quality of Nigeria`s Nollywood video films should be improved upon and laced with our indigenous cultures since they are viewed worldwide, and that Nigerian television stations should use their connectivity to satellite broadcasting networks to positively project Nigeria’s numerous cultures globally.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.

Source

Share